Uveitis & Ocular Immunology

Uveitis & Ocular Immunology

Patient Information on Uveitis

The eye is one of the most important sense organs. It Consist of 3 layers, the outer sclera, the middle Uvea and the inner Retina. The middle vascular layer is known as the Uvea. It Consists of 3 parts:

  • Iris- Gives color to the eye ( Black, blue)
  • Ciliary Body- Produces the fluid inside the eye
  • Choroid- Rich in blood vessels

What is Uveitis?

Uveitis is a conditional that is characterized by inflammation of the uveal tract and its adjacent structure. It can be anterior, intermediate or posterior Uveitis depending on the location of inflammation.

Cause Of Uveitis:

The Most common cause of Uveitis in India are infection, automatically and trauma. Sometimes the cause remains undiagnosed when it is termed as idiopathic. In some instances, it might be the initial manifestation of an underlying systemic disease without other systemic manifestations.

Symptoms of Uveitis:

The most common symptoms of Uveitis are:

  • Pain
  • Redness
  • Photophobia
  • Floaters
  • Dimness of Vision

According to Indian Survey in 2010, 8.5 million case/ 1168 Million , in which 1.5% new case. 60-80% Patents belongs to 3 rd and 6 th decade of life . Males = 62% and female = 38%.

Significance of Uveitis:

Uveitis is a potentially blinding disease, hence the need for early and prompt diagnosis by an Ophthalmologist and further care under a Uveitis specialist. Some of the complications of Uveitis include cataract, glaucoma and permanent loss of Vision and structure. Damage to the eye can be preventable if the conditions is detected early and treated adequately.

Managements of Uveitis:

Diagnosis involves thorough and meticulous examination of the eye and the patient in general along with detailed laboratory investigation in the form of blood tests, X rays and CT scan and MRI , where ever indicated . Cross consultation with an internist, rheumatologist and immunologist might be warranted. A regular follow up with ophthalmologist and compliance with medication is mandatory.

Treatment of Uveitis:

Steroid eye drops are the main stay of treatment in case of anterior Uveitis. For deeper inflammations, might be needed, Situations where oral steroids are contraindicated , immunosuppressant may be needed. Management of complications of Uveitis might need surgery and some form of laser treatment.

Take Home Message:

  • Prompt visit to the ophthalmologist when symptoms appear
  • Compliance with medications
  • Regular follow up
  • Doctor/ Patient team approach